Learning disability was first introduced by Samuel A. Kirk in 1963 for students with severe learning disabilities but no other disabilities. Learning difficulties is a term that includes a heterogeneous group disorder that manifests itself with significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematics skills. These disorders are internal features of the individual and are assumed to be caused by defects in the central nervous system and can last for life. Problems in self-regulation, perception of social life, and social interaction behaviors may arise with learning difficulties, but these problems do not constitute a category of learning disability on their own. Learning disability may co-exist with other disability groups (eg sensory disability, mental disability, social and emotional disability) or environmental influences (eg cultural differences, inadequate or inappropriate teaching), but is not a direct result of these conditions or effects. . Children with learning difficulties are children whose mental abilities are within normal limits but show learning difficulties. Children with learning disabilities should be distinguished from children with mental disabilities and behavioral disorders.
The most prominent features of students with learning difficulties are school failure. School failure is a significant failure of a student in comparison to the students who have achieved the average school success even though they are provided with a learning experience appropriate to their age and ability level. School failure in students with learning difficulties may manifest themselves in learning academic skills such as listening, speaking, reading, writing and mathematics. However, the boundary between school failure and learning disability cannot be precisely drawn. There are also students who cannot be described as learning difficulties but who fail at school. Such students can be described as learning difficulties as a result of misdiagnosis.
Writing and written expression difficulties observed in children with learning difficulties, writing skills such as handwriting, lettering and punctuation marks, grammar usage and written expression skills are observed. Difficulties in written expression skills are observed especially in organizing the text structure and using rich vocabulary. Handwriting is illegible compared to peers and seems to write more slowly than peers. Inverse writers (bd, dt, mn, gy, 2-5), skip some letters and syllables, inverse writers (ab-ba) or add letters and syllables (expense and expense), often make misspellings .
Difficulties in reading skills are handled as aloud and silent reading or basic reading and reading comprehension. These difficulties often include word recognition, sequential and syntactic errors (skipping, insertion, inverting) of letters during word recognition; to be able to make story analyzes such as reading meaning in text and comprehension, finding main ideas, sorting events, identifying characters; real-surreal distinctions and text summarizing difficulties.
Difficulties in mathematical skills, distinguishing mathematical symbols (numbers, shapes, positions of shapes in space, basic arithmetic operations (four operations), rhythmic counting, grain, quantity, part-whole concepts, learning the concepts of time, money and measure, and understanding the problems of verbal mathematics difficulties.
The most common problems in students with learning difficulties arise in the acquisition of language and speech and use in school. These students show significant individual and qualitative differences, and these problems range from delayed speech to loss of speech. Language content (meaning element; meaning and meaning dimension), form (phonology, morphology and syntax; grammar) and usage (use content and form elements in a social context in accordance with communicative purposes) ; difficulty finding words; showing speech and phonological problems during speech are the simplest examples.
In children with learning disabilities, cognitive deficits are observed as attention, thought, memory and upper memory, metacognition, and language skills. For example, difficulties in conceptualization, conceptualization, problem solving, abstraction, abstract thinking, memory retention, symbolization can be observed.
Some of the students with learning difficulties may experience more negative emotions than their peers emotionally. They are often at risk of being self-contained, unhappy or less laughing, self-confident, fatalistic and helpless. They may see the school unnecessary, have the expectation of constant failure, and feel that their efforts will not end (learned helplessness).
Students with learning disabilities are not mentally retarded, not able to learn due to sensory organ disabilities such as vision and hearing, emotional and behavioral disorders and physical disabilities. For example, the hearing impaired may arise as a learning problem that causes a delay in language and speech development. However, this is not considered a learning disability because the primary source of the problem is hearing impairment. However, there may be a learning disability in addition to hearing impairment.
Prepared by: Erdi Kanbaş - Special Education Specialist
E-mail: [email protected]
Tel: 0505 369 46 42 - 0216 521 68 99
• Special Learning Difficulty, Definitions, Symptoms-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity and Special Learning Difficulty Association, www.hiperaktivite.org
• Karlıdağ, F., Suna, E., Children with Learning Difficulties. Journal of Education. May 2003. Issue: 39. Ankara
• Topbaş, Seyhun. Children with Learning Difficulties. Anadolu University Publications. 1998. Eskisehir